By Graeme Barker
This large research records the long term human payment historical past of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the thoughts of archaeology, background and geography, Barker exhibits how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his subject matters and matters together with: techniques to Mediterranean panorama background; the fashionable panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The average panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric cost; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).
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Extra info for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley
Today the transhumant shepherds tend to use prefabricated metal huts as their living and working quarters, camping on the altopiani where they can be reached on a daily basis from their villages by truck. Wives occasionally now take part in what was almost invariably an exclusively male domain. The antiquity of long-distance transhumance in the Apennines, as elsewhere in the Mediterranean, is the subject of much debate (Barker, 1989a). Large-scale transhumance clearly has to operate within a political context capable of protecting extensive areas of grazing and the droveroads connecting them, and has generally been a capitalist enterprise, whether State or private.
By day they are taken away from the settlement by a shepherd to graze on vegetation within a couple of kilometres' radius - wasteland, roadside grass, fallow land, stubble fields after harvest, the rough grazing along the river floor. In the lower and middle valley in particular this kind of pastoralism is especially important for fertilising the arable land. In the upper valley, pastoralism is increasingly important as crop farming is more marginal. The villages of the Boiano basin in particular tend to have bigger flocks, because there is such extensive grazing on the abandoned terraces and, more particularly, in the Matese mountains.
1). I had selected the area because it hadn't been worked on recently by a British student, for whom regional syntheses of Italy's prehistory have a remarkably long pedigree (Barfield, 1971; Barker, 1981; Feet, 1909; Stevenson, 1947; Trump, 1965; Whitehouse, 1992). The most recent thesis had been written by Ruth Whitehouse in the late 1960s, and was published 12 APPROACHES TO MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE HISTORY as a series of important papers putting forward new chronologies and ideas about the beginnings of farming in southern Italy (Whitehouse, 1968a, 1968b, 1969, 1971).
A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley by Graeme Barker