By John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Ronald J. Deibert
Many nations all over the world block or filter out web content material, denying entry to information--often approximately politics, but additionally in terms of sexuality, tradition, or religion--that they deem too delicate for usual electorate. entry Denied files and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen international locations, providing the 1st carefully performed research of this accelerating trend.
Internet filtering happens in a minimum of 40 states around the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar net content material keep watch over mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S. and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world web filtering undertaken by means of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for net and Society at Harvard legislations tuition, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford college, and the collage of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings via nearby specialists and an in depth community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, criminal, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from a number of views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of net filtering, the strengths and obstacles of the expertise that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislation, moral issues for firms that provide states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the consequences of web filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on web applied sciences for speaking their missions.
Reports on web content material rules in 40 assorted international locations persist with, with each one nation profile outlining the categories of content material blocked by way of type and documenting key findings.
* bankruptcy 1: Measuring worldwide web Filtering
* bankruptcy 2: net Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control
* bankruptcy three: instruments and expertise of net Filtering
* bankruptcy four: Filtering and the overseas procedure: a query of Commitment
* bankruptcy five: Reluctant Gatekeepers: company Ethics on a Filtered Internet
* bankruptcy 6: reliable for Liberty, undesirable for safeguard? international Civil Society and the Securitization of the net
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Additional info for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
All Internet traffic to and from Saudi citizens had to pass through a single gateway to the outside world. At that gateway, the Saudi state established a technical filtering mechanism. If Saudi citizens sought to access a Web page that earlier had been found to include a pornographic image, for instance, the computers at the gateway would send back a message telling them, in Arabic, that they have sought to access a forbidden page—and, of course, not rendering the requested page. At a fundamental level, this basic form of control was initially about blocking access to information that would be culturally and politically sensitive to the state.
5 A key aspect of control online—and one that we prove empirically through our global study of Internet filtering—is that states have, on an individual basis, defied the cyberlibertarians by asserting control over the online acts of their own citizens in their home states. The manner in which this control is exercised varies. Sometimes the law pressures citizens to refrain from performing a certain activity online, such as accessing or publishing certain material. Sometimes the state takes control into its own hands by erecting technological or other barriers within its confines to stop the flow of bits from one recipient to another.
Pointing simply toward the absence of a solid rule of law does not seem promising. 12 A country can maintain a better-than-average rule of law record and still filter the Internet. Similarly, many countries suffer from a substandard legal situation while maintaining an open Internet. Comparing filtering practices with measures of voice and accountability is more telling. The countries that actively engage in the substantial filtering of political content also score poorly on measures of voice and accountability.
Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering by John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Ronald J. Deibert