By H.E. Landsberg (ed.), J. Van Mieghem (ed.)
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Extra resources for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 8
The critical frequency of the Fz layer, foF2, shows a very definite and regular change with solar activity over longer periods, and, in fact, is more sensitive than foE and foFl to these long-term changes in solar radiation. Allen’s 1501 study of the relation of ionospheric critical frequencies to a number of solar indices is perhaps the most illuminating single study of this type. Working with monthly mean indices, he determined the time lag that gave the highest correlation with sunspot number for each of the solar and ionospheric indices.
Each of these regions undergoes a history of activity that rises t,o a maximum and then declines. Sometimes regions exhibit several separate 24 R. G. ATHAY A N D C. S. WARWICK 1 I I Solar disk at A:5000A. 10. Relative brightness of several comparison objects. When applicable, the brightness is given as a function of elongation angle from the sun. peaks of disturbance before declining to a quiet state. Periods of high solar activity are characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of numerous active regions in different solar positions, with different degrees of disturbance.
If the shape of the rays of the solar corona, seen a t total eclipse, is taken to define the direction of the mangetic field, it can be deduced that the character of the field is like that of a simple dipole two-thirds the diameter of the sun in length, symmetrically located along the rotation axis of the sun. This approximate dipole character can be clearly seen only in the polar regions of the sun, to a distance of approximately 30" from the rotation axis. Outside this angular range the behavior of the corona suggests that the magnetic fields are considerably more complex.
Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 8 by H.E. Landsberg (ed.), J. Van Mieghem (ed.)