Download e-book for kindle: An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

By Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

ISBN-10: 0754613666

ISBN-13: 9780754613664

This paintings introduces the topic of formal common sense when it comes to a procedure that's "like syllogistic logic". Its method, like outdated, conventional syllogistic, is a "term logic". The authors' model of good judgment ("term-function logic", TFL) stocks with Aristotle's syllogistic the perception that the logical varieties of statements which are all in favour of inferences as premises or conclusions may be construed because the results of connecting pairs of phrases via a logical copula (functor). This perception contrasts markedly with that which informs modern common formal common sense ("modern predicate logic", MPL). The publication is meant as a device for the advent of TFL to the start pupil of common sense. it is usually a bankruptcy introducing commonplace MPL. There are a number of workout sections and a precis of the most principles, legislation and rules of TFL. For the philosophically orientated there are discussions of vital concerns on the intersections of semantics, metaphysics, epistemology and common sense.

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Some ... will be .. ', 'a .. is a ... ', 'all ... are ... ', and so forth. The NPNP analysis is not consistent with this. Thus any phrase of form 'some X' is a Noun Phrase and any phrase of form 'is a Y' is a Verb Phrase. But the terminist maintains that Noun and Verb Phrases are essentially of this special form each containing a term. Logically speaking, the Noun Phrase always consists of a word of quantity such as 'some' or 'all' followed by a nominal term and the Verb Phrase consists of a word of quality such as 'are' or 'were' followed by a second nominal term.

Statement Meaning Statements and terms are the two basic kinds of material expressions. Terms are used for characterizing things in the world. Statements are used for characterizing the world itself. We use lower case letters to represent statements. Like a term, a statement, 's', has three modes of meaning: (1) it expresses a sense or characterization, [s]. (What a statement expresses is called a proposition); (2) it denotes the world characterized by the proposition it expresses and (3) it signifies a characteristic of the world.

We will there compare Term Logic to Predicate Logic and show how they are related to one another. These two classical ways of doing logic are both legitimate and equally powerful from a formal standpoint. But the Term Way is closer to the syntax of a natural language like English, Spanish or French. Consider the fact that the Predicate Way construes an elementary sentence like 'some ape is black' as 'something is such that it is an ape and it is black', a sentence that contains the conjunctive form 'it is an ape and it is black' and the pronoun 'it'.

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An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen


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